What is sound design? This is the question Miranda Eastwood, current Sound Designer of The SpokenWeb Podcast, is looking to find out. Exploring soundscapes of all shapes and forms, Miranda draws from interviews with friends, colleagues, and academics, as well as Caroline Levine’s Forms: Whole, Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network to tackle this particularly tangled question. From sonic literature to audio walks, podcasting to music, this episode is a deep dive into what it means to “sound out” any and all audio texts, and the affective power afforded to sound as a medium of art and communication.
The Affordances of Sound
March 6, 2023
|(00:05)||SpokenWeb Podcast Theme Music:||[Instrumental Overlapped With Feminine Voice] Can you hear me? I don’t know how much projection to do here.|
|(00:18)||Katherine McLeod||What does literature sound like? What stories will we hear if we listen to the archive? Welcome to the SpokenWeb podcast, stories about how literature sounds. [Music ends]|
|(00:34)||Katherine McLeod||My name is Katherine McLeod, and each month I’ll be bringing you different stories of Canadian literary history and our contemporary responses to it created by scholars, poets, students, and artists from across Canada. Back in 2019, when the first episode of the SpokenWeb podcast was coming together, a big question for our team was, what do we want the podcast to sound like? We ended up deciding that we didn’t want to be prescriptive.
We wanted SpokenWeb researchers listening to the podcast and thinking about pitching an episode themselves to really know that the podcast welcomes all approaches when it comes to what your research about sound sounds like, and that we are there as an editorial team to collaboratively shape the sound design of each episode. But what exactly are we talking about when we talk about sound design? Fast forward to the fall of 2020 in Jason Camlot’s grad seminar at Concordia University on sonic approaches, where current spoken web podcast, sound designer Miranda Eastwood, was faced with the question, what is sound design?
The question of sound design sent Miranda Eastwood on an epic sonic journey, armed with their own experience, scholarly literature on the topic, and interviews with a wide ranging cast of individuals engaging in sound design in their own work. This episode, whens its way through both the theoretical and the practical.
The episode itself is exploring the affordances of sound, including how the medium is both a form to be used and a space in which to play. What does it sound like to ask the question, “what is sound design” on a podcast all about literary sound? Well, that’s what you are about to hear. Here’s episode five of season four of the SpokenWeb Podcast, The Affordances of Sound. [SpokenWeb Podcast Theme Music plays and then fades]
|(2:36)||Miranda Eastwood||[deep breath] Yeah, okay. [Piano music begins]|
|(02:47):||Miranda Eastwood||Alright, come on. Here we go. [sound effect: footsteps walking]
We’re in the English Department right now at Concordia University in Tiohtià:ke/ Montreal. I’m Miranda, by the way. I’m also currently the sound designer for the SpokenWeb podcast, and right now I’m taking you to Professor Jason Camlot’s weekly seminar course, Sonic Approaches. [sound effect: door opens] [piano music ends]
|(03:12)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||So I was doing my presentation on podcasting in Jason’s seminar.|
|(03:16)||Miranda Eastwood||I just finished one of our assignments, a presentation.|
|(03:20)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||And I kept throwing around the term sound design.|
|(03:23)||Miranda Eastwood||I volunteered to go on the week in which we covered scholarly podcasting.|
|(03:28)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Like, remember to start thinking about sound design early on, or you might want to consider sound design before you start recording, you know, stuff like that.|
|(03:38)||Miranda Eastwood||Big surprise.|
|(03:39)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Then Jason says something along the lines of we’re going to move on, but we’ll circle back to that term, Miranda, and we’ll get you to tell everyone what sound design is. And I just blanked, I just blanked for 30 seconds because I was sitting there like, I don’t know what sound design is.|
|(04:01)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||[Piano music begins] Oh boy. The sound designer doesn’t know what sound design is.|
|(04:05)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Or at least, I know what it is, but I don’t, I don’t know how to describe it. Not in a way that makes any sense.|
|(04:13)||Miranda Eastwood||So I did some research.|
|(04:15)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||You know, Google doesn’t count as research, right?|
|(04:18)||Miranda Eastwood||And I got some definitions.|
|(04:21)||Multiple Voices||[Piano music fades and ends] The art and practice of creating soundtracks for a variety of needs, creating the audio, the craft of creating an old term, which describes….|
|(04:31)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||These definitions. They don’t tell you anything. Some of them are too specific or too vague or they focus in on one aspect of the process. They describe one design choice rather than the series of choices as a whole or, or these definitions don’t even begin to cover the question. It’s too big. This…|
|(04:52)||Miranda Eastwood||This could be a podcast episode.|
|(05:02)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||[Piano music begins and ends] Ah, okay.|
|(05:03)||Jason Camlot||So where are you at with things?|
|(05:05)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Well, maybe I’ll just, I’ll do like a quick speed run of my outline. It’s no,t like this is really…|
|(05:11)||Miranda Eastwood||Really fast forward a week or two or three. Let me get the syllabus.|
|(05:16)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||There’s gonna be a lot of back and forth. There’s a lot of overlap between…|
|(05:20)||Miranda Eastwood||See, part of the seminar course was the option to tackle a long form podcast.|
|(05:26)||Jason Camlot||Are you doing short form, longform?|
|(05:27)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Yes.|
|(05:29):||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Absolutely. Why on earth would I write an essay when I could make a podcast?|
|(05:33)||Miranda Eastwood||[Laughs] So like, would any good student I pitched my idea to Jason.|
|(05:37)||Jason Camlot||On air! [Laughs]. Hi, I’m Jason. I’m a professor in the department of English at Concordia University and a Concordia University research chair in Literature and Sound studies.|
|(05:49)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Do you have that, is that like a script in your head that you just like…|
|(05:52)||Miranda Eastwood||Like I mentioned, this all started with his seminar.|
|(05:55)||Jason Camlot||Putting your key concepts front and centre…|
|(05:58)||Miranda Eastwood (05:58)||So I got some feedback and he gave me a book. Forms: Whole. Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network by Carolyn Levine. Good book. Great book. And I’m going to be using it to build a roadmap, so to speak, based off Levine’s concepts of forms and of affordances.|
|(06:19)||Jason Camlot||And reminding us of them, you know and sort of making it almost like a quest narrative for…|
|(06:26)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||A quest narrative. I like that. I like that a lot.|
|(06:33)||Miranda Eastwood||A quest! [Videogame music plays and ends] Here’s our game plan. [Soft electronic music begins]
We’re going to rely on Levine’s five main ideas about forms in order to navigate different genres of sound. What are the five ideas?
|(06:44)||Multiple Voices||Forms. differ, forms do political work in particular historical context, forms travel, forms, constraints, various forms, overlap and intersect.|
|(06:55)||Miranda Eastwood||What are the genres?|
|(06:56)||Multiple Voices||Voice, podcasting, music, audio walks and sound effects.|
|(07:01)||Miranda Eastwood||Did you get all that?|
|(07:02):||Multiple Voices||Uh no.|
|(07:04):||Miranda Eastwood||We’ll come back to them. Tackle them one by one. Our weapon of choice: affordances. Paraphrasing from Levine, who’s borrowing from design theory, “Affordances are the potential actions or uses of a material based on, well, the object itself, the teapot, for example, is very good at what it does because its form and material lend themselves to pouring tea and keeping hot liquids contained. This is due partially to the ceramic and partially to the fact that the teapot has a spout and a handle.”
Another example, this one’s from Levine, is the doorknob. A doorknob affords not only hardness and durability, but also turning, pushing and pulling. Outside of its design, certain materials and forms can also have unexpected affordances, like using a chair to get to that top shelf or substituting a mug for a flower pot. Likewise, forms also have limitations, but we’ll get to that later. For now, we’re going to use this idea of affordances as a blade.
[Sound effect: Sword unsheathing]
Yes. A sword that will help us cut through the jungle of interconnected forms and navigate the landscape of genre, right up to the moment where we face the ultimate question. Our proverbial dragon. What is sound design? [Music fades and ends]
|(08:46):||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||[People talking in the background] Excuse me. Pardon. Scusez. Merci. Sorry. Phew.|
|(08:49):||Miranda Eastwood||Hey, how’s it going? I’m not late, am I? Good? Good. We’re sitting in the crowd at the Casa del Popolo. It’s March, 2020. Kaie Kellough, Kevin Yuen Kit Lo, and Jason Sharp are performing their piece tonight, Small Stones. While they’re setting up, I thought we could talk a bit about forms. Yeah. I’ve been throwing the concept of form around like a hacky sack, so I figured I should explain beyond the main ideas. Going back to Levine… Forms are a sort of indication, an arrangement or pattern, a shape, something identifiable. Sounds vague? Yeah, it kind of is, but this inclusive definition allows us to break down Levine’s ideas and use them to our advantage. The first main idea we’ll look at is this:|
|(09:51)||(onstage) Miranda Eastwood||[Sound effect of someone walking on stage] Forms differ.|
|(09:53)||Miranda Eastwood||Distinct forms are different from each other. Easy enough, right? Right. [Sound effect of mic feedback] Oh, they’re just about ready to start. [background talking spots]|
|(10:05)||Jason Sharp (off mic, barely audible)||So like we, we do what we were just doing…|
|(10:05)||Miranda Eastwood||I thought it’d be nice to start here with Kellough, with voice, the voice as it’s featured in poetry, music, podcasting, everywhere and anywhere in audio texts. [Sound effect of mic feedback] [Calm electronic music begins]
I think it’s a good way to explore this idea of forms differing from one another because this voice, this performance, we’re about to hear… this never happened. [Music ends]
|(10:37)||(onstage) Miranda Eastwood||[Sound effect of someone walking on stage]
Hi. Hey. Yeah. Does anyone remember March, 2020? COVID 19. “Small Stones” was originally planned as a live performance.
|(10:49)||Kaie Kellough||This work was supposed to be a performance, like a live in-person performance.|
|(10:53)||Miranda Eastwood||This is Kaie Kellough, from an interview from “The Making of Small Stones”.|
|(11:00)||Kaie Kellough||But because of COVID, that was no longer possible because this was originally scheduled, I think for 2020.|
|(11:06)||Miranda Eastwood||This migration of form, from a physical space to a virtual space. I mean, it begs the question: how does this change the nature of the piece itself?|
|(11:17)||Kaie Kellough||It was generally decided that an in-person performance wouldn’t work as well, and it would be very complex because we would need to rent a venue if we wanted to present a live performance.|
|(11:31)||Miranda Eastwood||Katherine McLeod, current host of the podcast actually had a talk with Kellough about this exact topic, but from an alternate angle. In ShortCuts Season 3, “The Voice That Is The Poem”, Katherine and Kaie revisit a piece he performed as part of an online Words and Music show. In that interview, he talks about the difference between a live piece and a studio-produced piece, the exact opposite of what we were just discussing.|
|(11:58)||Kaie Kellough||There’s a raw, rawer quality to it than… Like, if this were made in a studio, it would’ve been a different piece because it would’ve been created for audio, right? It would’ve been created exclusively as an audio piece, and there would’ve been really limited emphasis on the visual aspect of performance and that communication with an audience, it would’ve been a much more, it would’ve been elaborate in a different way as a sonic object.|
|(12:23)||Miranda Eastwood||[Quiet string music begins]
The voice, manifested in these separate situations has its own set of affordances, even if as Levine tells us, no one has yet taken advantage of those possibilities and also to their limits, the restrictions intrinsic to particular materials and organizing principles.
|(12:41)||Kaie Kellough||In the studio, it’s a bit different. You wind up assembling the piece part by part.|
|(12:46)||Miranda Eastwood||You can manipulate the voice in different ways.|
|(12:49)||Kaie Kellough||And then if you can overlap them or layer them or have them speak across one another and sometimes sync up and sometimes diverge, then it becomes not just multiple voices, but it becomes an interplay among multiple voices, sort of directed movement. [String music ends]|
|(13:09)||Jason Sharp||Doing so in the studio gives us a really unique opportunity to use the studio as an instrument.|
|(13:14)||Miranda Eastwood||This is Jason Sharp, the musician behind “Small Stones”.|
|(13:19)||Jason Sharp||It allows us to kind of, to compose using a wider sonic palette while still being sourced with just a saxophone and voice.|
|(13:30)||Miranda Eastwood||Restricting the performance to a studio, then, can open or widen the soundscape of a piece.|
|(13:36)||Kaie Kellough||And then what happens when you have multiple voices? What do you do with them?|
|(13:39)||Miranda Eastwood||An affordance, born of limitation.|
|(13:42)||Kaie Kellough||We’re trying to take a very broad approach to sound. So everything from sharp high screams to low brassy pulses like you’re hearing now. [Low electronic music begins] We’re trying to explore sound. So sound, to me, also relates to exploration and listening.|
Small Stones plays]
|[Audio fades in] The chronicles of [inaudible] relate that in remote times… at the auction of a circus. [Audio fades out]|
|(14:22)||Katherine McLeod||Welcome to shortcuts. [ShortCuts theme music plays briefly and fades]|
|(14:27)||Miranda Eastwood||This concept of multiple voices is very interesting to me. Digitally we can layer voices. Similarly, with effect pedals, we can loop and layer vocals to, in Kellough’s words, “make the sonic field a little bit richer”. But what about your voice, the quality of a single voice working in different ways?|
|(14:51)||Katherine McLeod||In that summer I had the opportunity to work on the first episode, so…[Laughs] [Sound fades}|
|(14:56)||Miranda Eastwood||This Is From a very lucky interview I had with Katherine Mcleod, current host of the podcast, longtime host of Shortcuts, and the producer of the SpokenWeb podcast’s very first episode.|
|(15:10)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||We’re, we’re here at the podcast studio at Concordia University.|
|(15:14)||Miranda Eastwood||Something I would hear a lot during Jason Camlot’s seminar on sound was the phrase, “I hate listening to myself. I hate the sound of my own voice.”|
|(15:25)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||It’s, everybody hates the sound of their own voice. It’s just you hear yourself and, and there’s that, it’s weird. It’s like, ooh, is that, is that what I sound like? [Laughs]|
|(15:36)||Miranda Eastwood||It’s a common expression, but the real statement here is: “I don’t sound the way I want to sound.” [Soft piano music begins to play]
But then… What would you like to sound like?
|(15:48)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Filling slots for season one, you mentioned that there was a struggle for that, and I think you mentioned that part of that was that apprehension to working with sound and to going into what is perceived as a very technical field and then putting your work out there. And, and there’s that common question that comes up is like, I don’t, I don’t know if this is a good idea or not, and it’s like every idea is a good idea. [Laughs]|
|(16:13)||Katherine McLeod||But knowing that, that that idea is gonna be in public is it, is there’s, there’s apprehension about it. Also, something that often first time producers will comment on is that hearing themselves speak, hearing a recording of themselves speak… It will just be such a sort of process of just letting go of a lot of the ways that we hear ourselves and often really judge ourselves.|
|(16:43)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Oh, yeah, I don’t know how many…[Piano music ends]|
|(16:45):||Miranda Eastwood||There seems to be an immaterial standard of voice. A voice towards which we all reach or compare ourselves to. It’s different for everyone, you know, based on ourselves. But that standard can get in the way of artistic creation.|
|(17:02)||Katherine McLeod||This is something that Hannah McGregor has talked about quite extensively around voice, is the idea of like, how does the voice have authority and what or what do we think of when we think of a voice that has authority? And I think that sometimes when we hear ourselves if we don’t think that we sound authoritative, we can think, oh, oh no, I don’t, I don’t want this to be in public.
But then realizing that, well, I think we, we just, we have a… [Laughs] When we evaluate our own voices, we often don’t think that they sound authoritative. Whereas we’d be very, you know, easily I could say, oh, you, you, you sound like you know what you’re talking about. [Laughs] But it could, it might, we might be much, again, harder on ourselves.
|(17:46)||Miranda Eastwood||Not just in relation to the voice, but in podcasting itself.|
|(17:50)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Yeah, I was gonna ask about that. Like doing the first podcast episode. Like to me, like, that sounds like a lot of pressure, [laughs] that sounds, that sounds very, like, did you have, going into that, did you have a notion, like a sort of standard that you set yourself for that episode? Did you have an idea in mind going into it, or was it sort of just like, I don’t know what I’m doing and we’ll see what happens? [SpokenWeb theme music plays]|
|(18:17)||Hannah McGregor||Welcome to the SpokenWeb podcast, stories about how literature sounds. [SpokenWeb theme music ends]|
|(18:23)||Miranda Eastwood||Yes. Podcasting! Finally, we get to take a look at podcasting, academic podcasting ,to be specific.|
|(18:33)||Katherine McLeod||Well, for the, for the SpokenWeb podcast, I would say that the idea has always been there from the beginning, in the sense that when SpokenWeb became a Cross-Canada partnership in 2018, that there was really an interest in making literary criticism that was also exploring sonic possibilities. So there was discussion right away from the beginning about having a podcast as part of the research dissemination.|
|(19:03)||Miranda Eastwood||Which makes sense, right? I mean, SpokenWeb. Spoke, speak, sound. It seems obvious, but maybe it wouldn’t be as obvious just a few years ago. [Low string music begins]|
|(19:18)||Katherine McLeod||I remember in 2019 when we had our first SpokenWeb institute at SFU, Hannah gave a presentation to try to show the SpokenWeb researchers in the room how podcasting was very accessible. We had to, you know, gather into groups and come up with a pitch for an idea for an episode. And it was really exciting to see everyone kind of thinking about this possibility, ’cause I think that it was, it was something at that point that nobody had really thought about.|
|(19:51)||Miranda Eastwood||In my interview with Katherine, we touch on and explore a second idea relating to forms. That is, forms do political work, in particular historical contexts.
[Music swells and then fades]
|(20:09)||Katherine McLeod||Yeah. And even the way that the podcast forum is rooted in more of like a DIY culture where you know, it’s not necessary, it’s not something that is supposed to be made sort of at the sort of top down. It’s supposed to be coming from a grassroots place of just being able to record a conversation or work with some sounds and make it yourself, basically. So that sense of it being accessible and something that, again, doesn’t have to sound perfect. [Laughs]|
|(20:44)||Miranda Eastwood||In Levine’s words, “forms […] shape what it is possible to think, say, and do, in a given context.” This idea provides somewhat of an answer to Grint and Woolgar’s question, “Does technology determine, or is it determined by the social?”|
|(21:04)||Katherine McLeod||As you know, as academics, there’s such a push for the finished product to be really polished, as polished as possible. And again, the podcast can still be rigorous places for thinking, but they don’t have to sound the same as an academic paper.|
|(21:23)||Miranda Eastwood||Surprise! It’s both.|
|(21:24)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Like, that was a decision that you, you sat down and you were like, do we wanna set a structure for the podcast, or do we just invite anyone to come in and, and do what they wanna do?|
|(21:36)||Katherine McLeod||[Quiet electronic music begins] The decision was to be as open as possible in terms of the kinds of sounds that people wanted to bring to the table and the kinds of approaches that they wanted to take with their episode.|
|(21:45)||Miranda Eastwood||The idea was to build a podcast that reflected the ideas of researchers, rather than suggesting a rigid structure for episodes to follow, producers can arrange each episode to reflect their research strategies. Audio essays, panel talks, and interviews, all make an appearance in the SpokenWeb podcast. Just recently, we’ve released an episode based on a dramatic script.|
|(22:09)||Katherine McLeod||I think that we also kind of by chance in terms of which episodes we were pitched the first season, really does show that very well too, because we have an episode that Kate Mofatt made with very raw audio that was recorded at that SpokenWeb symposium and institute in 2019, not knowing that it would become part of a podcast, but it did. And she was able to edit the audio, but also then interview one of the panelists afterwards.
And so there was both a sense of hearing the raw audio and then also adding an interview to it. But that episode is a great example of being able to work with what you have and make something really exciting out of it. [Music ends]
|(22:55)||Miranda Eastwood||But these, these genres of podcasting, they’re still established forms. There is a right way to do an audio essay as well as an interview. There is a version of a podcast episode that works or does what it’s supposed to, what it’s designed to do.|
|(23:15)||Katherine McLeod||There’s a responsibility and a creativity to that process.|
|(23:20)||Miranda Eastwood||If your episode doesn’t end up doing what it’s supposed to do, is that a failure in sound design? A lack, maybe, of design? Or maybe even overly designed, overly produced? [Sound effect of someone walking on gravel] What would that even sound like?|
|(23:44)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||This.. is not an audio walk. I mean, depending on the definition. I’m walking. You might be walking too. If you are walking, does that not make this whole episode an audio walk?|
|(24:00)||Miranda Eastwood||We’re up to our third idea about forms.|
|(24:04)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||I’m on Mount Royal, by the way.|
|(24:09)||Miranda Eastwood||Forms travel.|
|(24:11):||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||Levine’s point with this one is that, that forms travel across time and space.|
|(24:18)||Miranda Eastwood||Cheesy. I know. Introducing this concept with an audio walk.|
|(24:22)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||You’ve gotta start somewhere.|
|(24:24)||Jason Camlot||I think that’s a great place to start.|
|(24:26)||Miranda Eastwood||Hopping on back to office hours with Professor Jason Camlot.|
|(24:30)||Jason Camlot||But there are audio walks that don’t require technologies, right?|
|(24:35)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Mhmm.|
|(24:36)||Jason Camlot||You can just go walking and listening.|
|(24:38)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Yeah.|
|(24:38)||Jason Camlot||And that’s a sound walk, right? You might say, we don’t hear much more when we’re walking without headphones than we’re here with headphones.|
|(24:46)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Yeah.|
|(24:46)||Jason Camlot||If we’re not actually trained or intentionally trying to listen, right?|
|(24:49)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Mm-hmm.|
|(24:50)||Jason Camlot||So that it might be, I think it’s important… No matter what you’re talking about in terms of sound design, remember that our hearing is already mediated, right?|
|(25:04)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Mhmm.|
|(25:04)||Jason Camlot||Even without using technology extensions, right? You know…|
|(25:08)||Miranda Eastwood||[Plucked strings music begins to play] But a unifying function of most audio walks, to paraphrase Malte Brinkmann, is an effort to reframe the individual, the walking subject, and to draw our attention to our own perception and observation of what surrounds us. That being said…|
|(25:26)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||Those walks, you don’t, you don’t really want to be following a map when you listen. It’s overwhelming. For a reason. Of course, they’re meant to be immersive. Maybe that’s just the way this form of the audio walk is evolving.|
|(25:45)||Miranda Eastwood||I’m quoting Bijker and Law here, “Technologies do not have a momentum of their own at the outset that allows them to pass through a neutral social medium. Rather, they are subject to contingency as they pass from figurative hand to hand, and so are shaped and reshaped. Sometimes they disappear altogether. No one felt moved or was obliged to pass them on. At other times. They take novel forms or are subverted by users to be employed in ways quite different from those for which they were originally intended.” [String music ends]|
|(26:26)||Jason Camlot||And what else do you see here that’s really weird?|
|(26:27)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Yeah.|
|(26:28)||Jason Camlot||Oh, two headphone jacks. That’s a really great device. All metal casing. [Laughs]|
|(26:34)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Yeah. Nice, nice brick in your pocket.|
|(26:36)||Miranda Eastwood||Jason showed me a button on the original Walkman.|
|(26:39)||Jason Camlot||I actually have one still. It doesn’t work anymore, but I may get it repaired one day.|
|(26:43)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Yeah. Well, what’s the big yellow button?|
|(26:46)||Miranda Eastwood||On his computer. Not in real life.|
|(26:49)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Oh, that’s a mic.|
|(26:50)||Jason Camlot||See That? So there’s a mic on it.|
|(26:53)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Okay. Just for the podcast to know, I’m at an angle from Jason’s computer, [laughs], like, this isn’t me being-|
|(26:57)||Jason Camlot||And we’re zooming in on an image of the first Walkman TPS- L2 model.|
|(27:05)||Miranda Eastwood||But it is a button that allows you to switch from listening to your tape, to your surroundings. A sort of anti-isolation.|
|(27:15)||Jason Camlot||There was a fear of one’s listening being blocked out from one’s actual environment. And if you press this button, it would pick up sound from the outside through this microphone. It could not record, but it was designed to hear the outside world.|
|(27:32)||Miranda Eastwood||Despite this being “old” technology, we’ve recently seen a resurgence in demand for headphones that offer an ambient noise function. That is, they let you hear your surroundings with the push of a button.|
|(27:47)||Jason Camlot||But it went away after-|
|(27:47)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||I did come back-|
|(27:48)||Jason Camlot||Well- Did it come back?|
|(27:49)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||It has come back.|
|(27:50)||Jason Camlot||And why…?|
|(27:50)||Miranda Eastwood||Technologies travel. Sometimes they go in circles.|
|(27:56)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||[Sound effect of someone walking in gravel]
Oh, should’ve… Okay. I should have went left. I think I’m caught in a loop.
|(28:09)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||All right, kiddos, we set?|
|(28:10)||Kaitlyn Staveley||Yeah, I think so.|
|(28:12)||Miranda Eastwood||Okay. So here’s one thing about those definitions from the beginning, those definitions on what sound design is. A lot of them, for me, only capture a part of the process, a moment.|
|(28:25)||Kaitlyn Staveley||As opposed to having to go up. Because I, I like, I don’t know, it just feels like there’s more abilities here than there is…|
|(28:32)||Miranda Eastwood||And it’s true. Sitting down with an arsenal of sounds and trying to make them into something cohesive can and usually is the most time consuming part of the process. But what about recording?|
|(28:44)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Are we set?|
|(28:47)||Kaitlyn Staveley||Yeah, I think so.|
|(28:48)||Miranda Eastwood||This is Kaitlyn.|
|(28:50)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||[Laughs] Do you wanna, do you wanna take a moment?|
|(28:51)||Kaitlyn Staveley||No, I think I’m good.|
|(28:53)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Okay.|
|(28:54)||Kaitlyn Staveley||[Piano music begins to play]
Hi, my name is Kaitlyn and I am Miranda’s friend.
|(28:58)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Uh, No. [laughs]|
|(28:59)||Kaitlyn Staveley||Wait, we’re not friends? This is news to me. [both laugh]
Hi, my name is Kaitlyn Staveley, and I’m a full-time cat servant. [both laugh]
Hi, my name is Kaitlyn Staveley and I’m gonna sing a song. [laughs]
[Music fades and ends]
Hi, my name is Kaitlyn Staveley. I am a hobbyist musician, singer and artist.
|(29:26)||Miranda Eastwood||This is us in my home studio working on some vocals for a Christmas collaboration.|
|(29:31)||Kaitlyn Staveley||And it was just giving me…|
|(29:32)||Miranda Eastwood||It took us about two hours for two minutes.|
|(29:38)||Kaitlyn Staveley (singing)||Decorations of red.|
|(29:41)||Kaitlyn Staveley||It’s clipping.|
|(29:42)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Yeah, it’s definitely… Alright, we’re gonna tune it down.|
|(29:44)||Miranda Eastwood||The majority of those hours being spent on decisions.|
|(29:48)||Kaitlyn Staveley||Can we perhaps scoot this one over because I need to be able to see the lyrics? Can we lower this just a little?|
|(29:55)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Oh yeah.|
|(29:56)||Kaitlyn Staveley||Do you have like a little, like a little seat? Because I feel more comfortable with my diaphragm down a bit as opposed to up, because… I was curious if maybe we could lower it all together and I can sit and sit maybe just a tiny bit lower? I’ll have a little sip of tea.|
|(30:09)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Yeah, let’s have a sip of tea.|
|(30:12)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||No, no, no. That’s why, that’s why this is…|
|(30:13)||Miranda Eastwood||Sound design begins long before you sit down at the computer.|
|(30:18)||Kaitlyn Staveley||Exactly. If you’re gonna do it, just do it. [Piano music ends]|
|(30:26)||James Healey||So it’s like the truest representation of the sound field at that time.|
|(30:30)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||That, that statement just corroborated, ugh, Corroborated…. I’m gonna cut that one out. [laughs]|
|(30:36)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||[Laughs]. Just, I keep saying-|
|(30:37)||James Healey||Sound criminal.|
|(30:38)||Miranda Eastwood||Sometimes it starts at the studio at Concordia University. Again.|
|(30:46)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||All right. That… Shouldn’t be humanly possible. [laughs] That’s the real mark of a musician. You can snap with all four fingers.|
|(30:52)||James Healey||Thats. Yeah. Yeah. That’s how they know.
My name is James Healey. I work with sound and music. I specialize as a sound recordist in like, ambient music.
|(31:05)||Miranda Eastwood||There’s no right way to set up a microphone. I mean, there are definitely wrong ways, but talking with James…|
|(31:12)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Okay. I’ve been thinking about this a lot since last week about your setup on that record we were listening to. Which was insane. There was a name for it…|
|(31:23)||James Healey||Yeah. Yeah. So there were four microphones.|
|(31:27)||Miranda Eastwood||I realized that sound design begins even before you set foot in the studio. Or wherever you happen to be recording.|
|(31:35)||James Healey||Three of the microphones were in an array known as a double mid-side. You can do an abbreviation M-S-M, so mid side mid. We’re gonna, as you say, unpack this a bit, and we’re gonna do a little bit of wave physics.|
|(31:54)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Oh boy. My favorite. [laughs]|
|(31:56)||James Healey||Ha, yes.|
|(31:57)||Miranda Eastwood||So, I realize this isn’t the podcast to air a 20-minute conversation about wave physics, so we’ll fast forward through this one.
[Sound effect of conversation fastforwarding]
|(32:09)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Okay. But like, like what… That sounds like so much work. What’s the advantage here?|
|(32:15)||James Healey||Some stuff suffers for the good stuff. I mean, whatever turns out good is the good stuff, but then some stuff suffers and then if you don’t do it justice, you’ll find that in post you’re fighting against it in the mix rather than working with it. It’s very risky.
[Electronic drum music begins]
And the advantages, I think, kind of outweigh that. Using one mic configuration to pick up several sound sources live off the floor, essentially causes a compression of the sound sources together, kind of like a glue to your mix that is natural to the acoustics and the spacing.
|(33:02)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Natural to, like, our hearing?|
|(33:05)||James Healey||It’s, it’s natural and true to the room. It’s natural and true to how the sound sources are placed. It’s natural to their amplitude according to each other.|
|(33:14)||Miranda Eastwood||And although James works in music, these recording setups could be applied to the design of any sound-based text. Cardiff and Miller’s audio walks, for example, use binaural recording; a method that more accurately captures the way we perceive sound. [Music ends]|
|(33:32)||James Healey||Like. I’m just like, I’ll hear the music and I’ll think of the record as like a whole. And I’ll think of the vibe to say something very not technical.|
|(33:40)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Are there sound shenanigans that you’ve pulled off? Like similar, really interesting, I guess noteworthy?|
|(33:48)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Do, do a rapid fire.|
|(33:50)||James Healey||[‘Soulless Days” by James Healy begins to play]
Okay. The first record I ever made for a band would be a band called Dumpster Juice. And we just committed eight channels to four track cassette tape. I ended up doing some records in Dawson City Yukon, where I was running a recording studio over the winter up there doing some cool EPs in like, sort of this barn workshop in my friend’s loft of this like barn workshop in the woods there. And did some records in like negative 50 outside. It was, it was crazy. T
here was another one, the Wakefield session where I was studying the record, “The Trinity Session” by the Cowboy Junkies. So I did the same thing, but in a church in Wakefield, with the sound field microphone, and that’s the first record, I think, that was like really a professional piece of audio, but when I finally did it, I was like, wow. Like, it was not all in vain. It was very stressful. [Miranda laughs]
You know, I made a record. I have like some, an ambient project called Jupiter Machine where I made a record all to cassette tape.
|(34:52)||Miranda Eastwood||We’re listening to it right now. This is “Soulless days”. You can check out the show notes for a link to the rest of the album. [“Soulless Days swells and fades]
The idea of an organic or natural sound… That’s not going to be the same across cultures, industries, or individuals. Sometimes you’ve just got to keep the context in mind.
|(35:26)||Kaitlyn Staveley||I feel… maybe like one more take cuz it’s… I’m drying out.|
|(35:31)||Miranda Eastwood||So, in terms of what form is doing here.|
|(35:38)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Okay, I think we’re good. All right. Are we ready-Eddie-setti?|
|(35:40)||Miranda Eastwood||Or what idea the form of recording represents.|
|(35:43)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||3,2,1…|
|(35:46)||Miranda Eastwood||Forms constrain.|
|(35:50)||Kaitlyn Staveley (singing)||I’ll have a blue Christmas without you. I’ll be so blue just thinking about you. You’ll be doin’ all right, with your Christmas of white, but I’ll have a blue, blue, blue, blue Christmas.|
|(36:28)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||[Miranda claps] Yay!|
|(36:29)||Kaitlyn Staveley||Thank you. How was that? How does that sound? I didn’t hear it in the headphones.|
|(36:35)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||Wait, so what does that mean? Forms constrain? That doesn’t sound positive.|
|(36:40)||Miranda Eastwood||When we designate something as a specific form, we also designate its limits. The teapot includes the lid, but not the mug next to it. The sonnet is made of 14 lines, no more, no less. Or it isn’t a sonnet.|
|(36:58)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||Right. Right.|
|(36:58)||Miranda Eastwood||Let’s go back to affordances. Remember? What a form can do and what it can’t do or what it does badly. [Piano begins to play]
To quote Ian Hutchby: “the reason is that different technologies possess different affordances and these affordances constrain the ways that they can possibly be written or read. While a tree offers an enormous range of affordances for a vast variety of species, there are things a river can afford, which the tree cannot and vice versa.”
I mean, it seems obvious when you put it like that, right? The thing is, we don’t really decide what forms are. If I put a sonnet in front of you and you refused to acknowledge it as such, the form of the sonnet wouldn’t seize to exist. That poem wouldn’t stop being a sonnet.
|(37:53)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||No. If only I were that powerful.|
|(37:57)||Miranda Eastwood||Identifying forms is the first step to understanding how they work and what their affordances are. This might seem straightforward. After all, is sound not a form? Could we not simply explore the affordances of sound?|
|(38:14)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||That’s a bit ambitious, isn’t it?|
|(38:17)||Miranda Eastwood||Impossibly ambitious. Sound is made up of multiple, countless other forms, or rather multiple countless other forms are made up of sound. Which, by the way, leads us to our final idea about forms.|
|(38:32)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||Forms overlap.|
|(38:34)||Miranda Eastwood||And intersect.|
|(38:39)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||…Because it’s not… Yeah, no, Like that’s a nice sound. Wait, wait, just do. Oh-oh-oh yeah.|
|(38:47)||Miranda Eastwood||That’s me.|
|(38:49)||Ghislaine Comeau||We look like fools. [Laughs]|
|(38:50)||Miranda Eastwood||[Laughs]. Oh yeah. And Ghislaine.|
|(38:52)||Ghislaine Comeau||This is fun. Hello, my name is Ghislaine Comeau and I am a PhD student at Concordia University where I study early medieval English literature.|
|(39:04)||Miranda Eastwood||We spent a morning at Concordia University collecting sound effects for our short form podcast assignment.|
|(39:10)||Ghislaine Comeau||[String music begins]
And secretly I am also an amateur artist.
|(39:16)||Miranda Eastwood||She was also in Jason’s seminar.|
|(39:19)||Ghislaine Comeau||With the clacking of the feets and the doors and an occasional plexiglass slider and keys.|
|(39:28)||Miranda Eastwood||And she was after very specific sounds.|
|(39:31)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||We can take the zoom recorder and we can get footsteps like literally in the hallway.|
|(39:34)||Ghislaine Comeau||Yeah, in the hallway.|
|(39:35)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||It’s Thursday morning-|
|(39:36)||Ghislaine Comeau||Yeah. And it’s gonna, we’re gonna make it sound like a big fancy schmancy archive place in the hallway.|
|(39:46)||Miranda Eastwood||You could call what we were doing Foley art.|
|(39:49)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Remember it’s not about like how-|
|(39:52)||Ghislaine Comeau||It’s about all of it.|
|(39:55)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||It’s not about how leather actually sounds. It’s about how you think, how we would think leather sounds, you know, decontextualized from its environment. [Music ends]|
|(40:06)||Miranda Eastwood||Foley art brings an environment to life through sound. From big things like thunder… [Sound effect of thunder plays]
To small things, like brushing dust off a hardcover book…[Sound effect of someone brushing dust off a book]
Foley started in radio, but has since evolved into a term used primarily in film.
|(40:26)||James Healey||The concept of Foley plays with sort of this perception of source bonding.|
|(40:34)||Miranda Eastwood||I talked a bit about Foley with James.|
|(40:37)||James Healey||I’ve done some post for a handful of short films, as well as one feature where there was some Foley involved, sort of like informal, you know, using rubbing on a table if they’re rubbing on something else or you know….|
|(40:56)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||Mhmm.|
|(40:56)||Miranda Eastwood||In Foley, what you record is rarely the object you’re trying to imitate. The sound you capture will be more exaggerated, sharper, more focused. There’s a difference between sound as we experience it and sound effects.|
|(41:13)||James Healey||[Upbeat electronic music begins] So source bonding in electro acoustics is basically relating a sound to the context of its source, like attributing sonic characteristics to a certain sound source. And that is enforced by the visual on the screen and therefore sound also enforces the visual context as well. So they’re sort of acting in resonance.|
|(41:40)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||I guess that’s why they call it Foley “art”. [Music ends]|
|(41:42)||Miranda Eastwood||It’s although I will say that thunder from before? [Sound effect of thunder plays]
I did get that one right outside my apartment. So not that it’s my goal to cover everything, because as mentioned, that would be insanely ambitious. But we do need to talk about… [Spooky music plays and ends]
The dark side of affordances. Affordances, remember, are a double edged blade.
|(42:21)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||[Sound effect of sword being unsheathed]
By the way, this sword sound is actually me dragging a spoon across an empty travel mug. Isn’t that cool?
|(42:29)||Miranda Eastwood||Affordances are useful in describing what a material does well, but also what it does not so well. It’s limitations, it’s failures, which brings us to a difficult question. How does sound fail? [Spooky music plays and ends]|
|(42:49)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||The only anecdote I can think of, like where, where sound, at least sound design has really failed personally for me is I… That workshop with Oana… Avasilichioaei?|
|43:01)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood (||Yeah. So we submitted a short piece and I thought I was doing something very nice and artistic by ending my piece with, you know, footsteps on gravel walking off into the sunset, she marked the, she timestamped that moment with a little comment, why is somebody chewing? [Jason laughs]
And I was just like… where does that come from?
|(43:23)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||Would this sound like walking to you if you didn’t have any context? [Sound effect of someone walking]|
|(43:34)||Miranda Eastwood||“In any given circumstance, no form operates in isolation.” That’s a quote pulled directly from Levine. When we immerse ourselves in sound, we’re not coming to the table empty handed. We all have our own personal and cultural experiences that can and will shape the way we hear. You could argue for the affordances of sound as… Immersive, transformative, but what happens… [Sound effect as though Miranda is speaking in an echoey hallway]…when sound can’t reach you?
From Hutchby again, “it is important to see that affordances are not just functional, but also relational aspects of an object’s material presence in the world.” [Sound effect of someone walking] You could say sound offers us immersion, but who’s the us in this case? More importantly, who are we excluding here?
|(44:34)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||[Breathes deeply] 51, almost at the top. You know, it’s, it’s funny when, when people ask for directions to the chalet, they don’t call it the chalet. They say ‘the view’. Which way’s the view? Oh, right. We were, we were talking about deafness, right?|
|(44:56)||Miranda Eastwood||Two technologies clashing.|
|(45:04)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||Is it ironic to talk about deafness on a podcast?|
|(45:10)||Miranda Eastwood||“The ear itself is a composite organ which hears by mechanical and electrical means.”|
|(45:16)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||Or is it of the utmost necessity?|
|(45:19)||Miranda Eastwood||That was a quote from Mara Mill’s chapter from Keywords in Sound. And I believe it’s useful to think of our own hearing as a sort of technology, but one that’s unfixed, subjective. There are different degrees of deafness, paraphrasing Mills, which can be conceived as a pre-condition of hearing, or as the resistance to hearing.
As we age, we often lose our ability to hear. Exposure to loud environments over time will wear down our ability to hear sounds at certain frequencies. Acknowledging the inherent differences in an individual’s hearing can reshape the way we design sound. If I were to design a piece for a friend that could only hear low frequency rumbling, I’d likely come up with something that would be physically difficult to listen to for someone with a wider frequency range. But beyond that, acknowledging limitations can also invite quite literally, invention.
[Electronic music begins]
Thomas Edison identified as deaf, once remarking, “I have not heard a bird since I was 12 years old.” Quite the anecdote from the guy who invented the phonograph. Mills mentions other audio-notable figures in her chapter who similarly identified as deaf or hard of hearing. To quote Mills, “deafness has afforded insights into etology, acoustics, and phonetics, and in turn given rise to new psychotechnical devices.” All this to say that the affordances of sound are not isolated to sound itself, but emerge from a relationship between the listener and the audio text. Sound design insinuates that the piece is being designed with a subject in mind. Considering the subject as an open position encourages us to reconsider the role, function, and form of sound.
[electronic music ends]
|(47:28)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Alright, um…|
|(47:28)||Miranda Eastwood||Well, we’ve been all over the place.|
|(47:34)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||This is… this is a box [laughs], and it’s got a little latch.|
|(47:41)||Miranda Eastwood||I hope this has been as much of a journey for you as it has been for me.|
|(47:45)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||And inside the box is another box. A music box. It is, yeah, that’s, yeah. It’s a music box that is literally, [sighs] It’s a box that makes music. Um…|
|(48:02)||Miranda Eastwood||But what about our question?|
|(48:04)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||At the top. Can you hear that? Can you hear the, the flag?|
|(48:10)||Miranda Eastwood||My question, Really.|
|(48:12)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||The flag hitting the metal pole in the wind.|
|(48:16)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||…And you run the strip of paper through it, and the idea is that the paper, you can make little holes in the paper and the holes dictate where the notes go because it’s a music box. It makes music.|
|(48:32)||Miranda Eastwood||After all this, all this talking.|
|(48:36)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||And yelling and screaming! And stomping down hallways. [laughs]|
|(48:41)||Ghislaine Comeau||What do we think?|
|(48:42)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||And there’s a little crank. You have to.. I’m gonna turn the, turn the crank. Like-|
|(48:49)||Miranda Eastwood||What is sound design?|
|(48:52)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||So it’s this, it’s [laughs]. It’s a, it’s a neat little, little machine. I love it. The thing is about… So there are rules, you, well rules. You can’t play the same note twice. It’s just because…|
|(49:09)||Miranda Eastwood||Something, I think, that has summed up every step of the way, every mark on our map. It’s been this…reaching for something…|
|(49:14)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||…Fast Enough. There’s no way it can go fast enough reaching for something for the same note, hit twice, two beats in a row. Also. it’s got a weird scale.|
|(49:26)||Miranda Eastwood||You’re aiming for something when you begin that process of design. You’re practicing intention.|
|(49:34)||(audio walk) Miranda Eastwood||I made it. There’s, there’s the view.|
|(49:38)||Miranda Eastwood||At the end of this podcast episode, I’m making the argument for sound as a means of transport and creation. Sound design is, well, design. Design is creation. Creation is storytelling. And stories take us places. [Music box music begins to play]|
|(50:04)||(singing) Miranda Eastwood||I’d… Like you to meet my imaginary friend..|
|(50:11)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||What does sound design mean to you?|
|(50:17)||(singing) Miranda Eastwood||We stay up late…|
|(50:18)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||Soundscape. Let’s narrow that down a bit.|
|(50:21)||Katherine McLeod||And thinking that when one, say, has a recording of something that one wants to work with…|
|(50:28)||Jason Camlot||It’s about thinking through the affordances of, like, hearing and listening.|
|(50:33)||Ghislaine Comeau||So how does the Hunched Wizard sound like when he walks? [Laughs]|
|(50:40)||Jason Camlot||And the media technologies through which one is actually manipulating sound.|
|(50:47)||Kaitlyn Staveley||Yeah? Was that better than the last one?|
|(50:48)||James Healey||For me, it’s like, almost sculpting.|
|(50:53)||Katherine McLeod||In an episode or in a, you know, a performance or what have you.|
|(50:56)||James Healey||Yeah, you really are, you’re sculpting like a stereo field.|
|(51:00)||Jason Camlot||And coming up with a sonically formal configuration of those sounds…|
|(51:05)||Katherine McLeod||What is gonna be the, the sort of the sound that holds that sound.|
|(51:11)||(singing) Miranda Eastwood||Said, you were mine, mine, mine. Gimme, gimme, never get. I know the going’s tough, but we can’t give up just yet. So breathe on 1, 2, 3.|
|(51:22)||(Interview) Miranda Eastwood||The sound that holds the sound.|
|(51:23)||Jason Camlot||A particular listening model in mind in order to achieve specific effects.|
|(51:30)||Kaitlyn Staveley||Should we listen to it with music?|
|(51:32)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Sure.|
|(51:33)||(off-centre) Miranda Eastwood||Music to me is, you know, kind of the highest form of sound design you can say, because it’s so.. Difficult.|
|(51:43)||Kaitlyn Staveley||[laughs] Yeah, exactly. You’re right.|
|(51:44)||James Healey||Right. Becomes this glue to the work, which actually sort of makes the viewer or the listener feel like those elements have always belonged together.|
|(51:55)||(singing) Miranda Eastwood||Oh, I said that you were mine. You said that you were mine. I’d like to keep my imaginary friend. My imaginary friend. My imaginary friend. [Music box ends]|
|(52:26)||(off-mic) Miranda Eastwood||Ugh. Good. One more take? One more take.|
|(52:32)||Miranda Eastwood||Yeah, okay.|
|(52:46)||Katherine McLeod||[Spoken Web] heme music begins] The SpokenWeb Podcast is a monthly podcast produced by the SpokenWeb team as part of distributing the audio collected from and created using Canadian literary archival recordings found at universities across Canada.
Our producer this month is Miranda Eastwood, an MA student at Concordia University and our very own sound designer for the SpokenWeb podcast. Our supervising producer is Kate Moffatt. And our transcriptionist is Zoe Mix. A special thanks to Professor Jason Camlot, professor Katherine McLeod, James Healy, Kaitlyn Staveley and Ghislaine Comeau for lending this episode their original voices.
To find out more about SpokenWeb, visit spokenweb.ca. Subscribe to the SpokenWeb podcast on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or wherever you may listen. If you love us, let us know. Rate us and leave a comment on Apple Podcasts, or say hi on our social media at SpokenWebCanada. Stay tuned to your podcast feed later this month for ShortCuts with me, Katherine McLeod. Short stories about how literature sounds. [Theme music ends]
Miranda Eastwood is a transmedia artist based in Tiohtià:ke/Montréal, currently studying towards their master’s degree in English Literature and Creative Writing at Concordia University. They passionately pursue works of many forms, including the development of a radio drama, several ongoing comics, and the release of a full-length audiobook. They are also the sound designer and audio engineer for The SpokenWeb Podcast.
James Healey’s music: https://thejupitermachine.bandcamp.com/album/soulless-days
Kaitlyn Staveley’s music: https://www.youtube.com/@theradiokaityshow1481
Bijker, W. E. and Law, J. 1992. ‘General Introduction’, in W. E. Bijker and J. Law (eds.), Shaping Technology/Building Society. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Brinkmann, M. (2018) The ‘audio walk’ as a format of experiential walking, Phenomenological research in education. Available at: https://paed.ophen.org/2018/06/25/gehen-spazieren-flanieren-das-format-audiowalk-als-erfahrungsgang/
Cardiff, J. and Miller, G.B. (no date) Walks, Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller. Available at: https://cardiffmiller.com/walks/
Grint, K. and Woolgar, S. 1997. The Machine At Work. Cambridge: Polity.
Hutchby, Ian. “Technologies, Texts and Affordances.” Sociology, vol. 35, no. 2, 2001, pp. 441–56. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/42856294. Accessed 13 Dec. 2022.
Kellough, Kaie, et al. “‘Small Stones’: A Work in Poetry, Sound, Music and Typography.” “Small Stones”: a Work in Poetry, Sound, Music and Typography – SpokenWeb Archive of the Present, https://archiveofthepresent.spokenweb.ca/small-stones-a-work-in-poetry-sound-music-and-typography/.
Levine, Caroline. Forms: Whole, Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network. Princeton University Press, 2015.
McLeod, Katherine, host. “The Voice That Is The Poem, ft. Kaie Kellough.” The SpokenWeb Podcast, ShortCuts, Season 3, Episode 5.
Mills, Mara. Novak, David, and Matt Sakakeeny, editors. Keywords in Sound. Duke University Press, 2015. “deafness” p.45-54.
Ricci, Stephanie. The Making of “Small Stones” (2021) SpokenWeb Archive of the Present. SpokenWeb.